Which countries or regions (EU, U.S., China, etc.) own the majority of debt when we include hidden debt in Africa?
Chinese public and private lenders accounted for 12% of the
continent's $696 billion external debts in 2020, while 35% was owed to
other private creditors, according to an analysis of World Bank data
by Debt Justice, a campaign group.
Reuters has different statistics compared to WP
As Africa's largest bilateral creditor, China holds at least 21
percent of African debt — and payments to China account for nearly 30
percent of 2021's debt service, as shown in the figure below. Angola
alone accounts for almost a third. [...]
China also wrote off the accumulated arrears of at least 94
interest-free loans amounting to at least $3.4 billion. However,
interest-free loans make up less than 5 percent of China’s lending to
There's mention of hidden debt, but I am guessing Western countries also have hidden debt, so how do you add them up to the equations and after doing so which countries own the most African debt?