What kind of a temporary no-fly zone would be the most optimal to prevent civilian deaths, injuries and damage to civilian houses in Ukraine?
Specifically, the no-fly zone could be enforced by NATO, either:
(a) by NATO alone, or
(b) by NATO in combination with the Russian Federation.
For (b) to work, we need the Russian dictator Vladimir Putin can be persuaded to negotiate and then enforce the no-fly zone)
Damages to civilian houses:
- Or just Google:
ukraine bombed, e.g., here.
A 2004 Stanford University paper published in Journal of Strategic Studies, "Lessons from Iraq and Bosnia on the Theory and Practice of No-fly Zones," reviewed the effectiveness of the air-based campaigns in achieving military objectives. The paper's findings were: 1) A clear, unified command structure is essential. In Bosnia and Herzegovina, during "Operation Deny Flight," a confusing dual-key coordination structure provided inadequate authority and resulted in air forces not being given authority to assist in key situations; 2) To avoid a "perpetual patrol problem," states must know in advance their policy objectives and the exit strategy for no-fly zones; 3) The effectiveness of no-fly zones is highly dependent on regional support. A lack of support from Turkey for the 1996 Iraq no-fly zone ultimately constrained the coalition's ability to effectively enforce it.
Wikipedia: No-fly zone: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/No-fly_zone
In the present situation NATO and its member states are very specifically avoiding starting a war with Russia (for example, by placing troops in Ukraine, or creating a no-fly zone).