Is the NIH solely federal or public-private?
Many say the US drug industry came from the Federal, not the private sector. The US invests absurdly in basic health research. There they have the National Institutes of Health, the largest health research institution in the world, which is "federal".
I know that certain (or most) research receives investment from the private sector, but I'm not sure if that makes it public-private or completely federal
I think it's both... a federal institution doesn't stop being federal because it has public-private relations, if that was NASA would be and even the FBI would be; because all these institutions that I mentioned have public-private partnerships
Of course in the US I don't know what they define as a public-private company or institution to compare with Brazil, but I left the link highlighted, which is from a US government website, they referred to the NIH as a federal institution: https://www.usa.gov/federal-agencies/national-institutes-of-health