Civil servant or bureaucrat, as I understand are those government servants who help implement the laws that the government makes. They enforce the laws in the domain of their authority. Of course, there is a hierarchy. But civil servants can be distinguished from a government employee in that a government employee does his job that he is assigned to, an accountant prepares salary bills, an administrative assistant of an office deals with his given task, a typist types what he is asked, a stenographer types what she was dictated by the bureaucrat. The final signature is done by the bureaucrat. This introduction is to point out the differences between a clerk and a bureaucrat before I start the question.
Case 1 : Consider a software company. To work there, a recently graduated computer science student passes an interview. She works there for about 2 years before she is promoted to a team leader. Or she moves to another company where they sought 2 years of experience in writing code. After working 5 years more, she moves on to become a manager. Again, in the coming years, she keeps progressing.
Case 2 : Consider the country India.
2.A. There is an open position for a stenographer. To be eligible it requires you to have completed the stenographer diploma besides a bachelor's degree. After that there will be an interview.
2.B. There is also an open position for a bureaucrat. Of course, many positions are open. This is for simplification. To be eligible you need a bachelor's degree. There is an interview which is tougher than the previous.
Thus there are separate exams for clerks and bureaucrats albeit the eligibility criteria are similar.
While it has been working well I guess, there are some demerits of this case. Working from ground level to higher level makes one more familiar with the ground level problems. The software industry, manufacturing industry perhaps doesn't face this problem because the workers there started below and went up. It is said to be a leader you must learn to follow.
That said, I have to say exceptions exist. Even in the government sector, engineers are recruited. They climb their way up. The top positions are of the decision makers. There is also of doctors. Medical officers, directors, are qualified doctors. They went from bottom to top.
My question is - is there a country which has promotional form (i.e experience based form) of bureaucracy (non-engineers or non-doctors)?
A fresh graduate starts as a typist at the age of 21. After 2 years, she appears an interview and qualifies for a junior administrative assistant. After 3 more years, she qualifies another interview for senior administrative assistant. Then finally she becomes a superintendent after 4 more years. Then she becomes a bureaucrat.
Reason: It seemed possible in theory. But in practice it is not possible always. Most often, there are more levels in the hierarchy of clerks, and there are age limits for interview of bureaucrats.