Back during the German elections, I remember a bunch of parties saying they would be unwilling to form a coalition with AfD. That made me wonder--what if AfD had won the most votes without getting a majority, but no party was willing to form a coalition with them? Could some number of the minority parties that would add up to a majority form a coalition despite none of them getting a plurality of seats? Similarly, such a scenario could happen in the UK right now, though it would require an unlikely (?) coalition of everyone against the conservatives.